ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

What is ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental disorder which is commonly seen in children. It is a childhood disorder that continues through adolescent and adulthood. ADHD is affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children all over the world. The number of boys who got affected by ADHD is more than the number of girls. Symptoms of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsive or inattentive behavior of child.


ADHD is classified into 3 sub categories:

  • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
  • Predominantly inattentive
  • Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive

Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive:
Most of the symptoms (six or more) of predominantly hyperactive-impulsive fall in category of hyperactivity-impulsive. And some of them (fewer than six) come under inattention.

Predominantly Inattentive:
Most symptoms are inattention category and fewer (less than six) hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms are present. Children with this type of mental disorder are less likely to have difficulties with other children. They do not pay attention to what they are doing, they sit quietly. Consequently, parents and teacher do not notice symptoms of ADHD.

Combined Hyperactive-Impulsive and Inattentive:
The majority (six or more than six) of Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms are present. Most of the children suffer with combined type of Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Symptoms of ADHD in children

If a child is suffering from ADHD then you can notice inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive behavior more frequently. For sometime child is inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive which is totally normal. However, same behavior for more than six months shows the symptoms of ADHD in your child.

Following are the symptoms of ADHD in children according to the subtypes of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder:

Children suffering with Predominantly Inattentive:

  • Face difficulty in focusing on things
  • Get bored easily, unless doing something enjoyable
  • Easily distracted, forget things, switch in between activities and miss details
  • Face difficulty in organizing and completing the task
  • Do not pay attention to a person speaking to the child
  • Easily get confused and move slowly
  • Face problem in completing their home work and often forget or lose things such as pencil, toys etc.
  • Daydreamer

Children suffering with Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive:

  • Speak continuously
  • Squirm and restless on the seat
  • Constantly moving and impatient
  • Face difficulty in doing quiet tasks
  • Touching anything and everything
  • Face difficulty in sitting quietly at school, dinner, etc.
  • Playing with anything and everything
  • Reveal their emotion without any restraint and pass inappropriate comments
  • Interrupt others activities and conversations

Children suffering with Combined Hyperactive-Impulsive and Inattentive

  • Feel restless while seating at one place
  • Daydreamer
  • Easily get confused
  • Fidget with hands and feet
  • Talk less
  • Make careless mistakes
  • Burst out and break things

Causes of ADHD

There are no particular reasons or causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but there are many different causes which contribute in the ADHD. Here are some of the causes of ADHD:

  • Genes: Many researches show that ADHD often runs in the families. Child inherits genes from parents which also causes ADHD in children.
  • Environment: Consumption of alcohol, smoking during pregnancy or depression in pregnancy are also cause of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. They might increase the risk.
  • Diet: Too much consumption of preservative and artificial colors can affect the hyperactivity.
  • Social Surroundings: Emotional abuse, violence, avoiding are some of the factors which contribute to the causes of ADHD.

Treatment of ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be treated through psychotherapy and medication. Doctors decide the treatment of ADHD based on the child's condition.


In the case of treatment of ADHD, various types of psychotherapies are used to improve child's behavior and manners. Behavioral therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy help a child to improve his behavior and teaches the way to control him. Children learn to control their anger, stop fidgeting, stay calm, and listen and respond other people properly.


Stimulant is the most common antidepressant which is used to calm down the child. Many stimulant antidepressants are available in the market. However, you should consult your psychiatrist.

Here is a list of Antidepressants which are helpful in the treatment of ADHD:

For 3 years and older (generic name):

  • Amphetamine
  • Dextroamphetamine

For 6 years and older (generic name)

  • Methylphenidate
  • Methylphenidate patch
  • Atomoxetine
  • Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate

These are some of the antidepressants doctors could prescribe your child according to his/her condition. Never use them without doctor's permission because sometimes they may have side effects.

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